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Egyptian Gods and Goddesses

Nut - The Sky Goddess

Other names : Neuth, Nuit

Nut - The Sky GoddessNut was the daughter of Shu, the Egyptian god of air, and Tefnut, goddess of water. She was also the sister and wife of Geb, god of the earth.

Nut's domain was the sky, and she was commonly pictured as a naked woman arching over the earth, with her hands and feet touching the ground. Her body is usually sky-colored and filled with stars. She is also sometimes depicted as a cow. Some stories tell of Nut swallowing the sun in the evening, and giving birth to it in the morning.

Nut is famous for being the mother of some of the most important egyptian gods: Osiris, Isis, Set and Nephthys. The story of Ra mentions the sun god Ra forbidding Nut to bear any children, for fear of them taking his throne from him. But Nut sought the help of the wise god Thoth, and managed to give birth to her four children.

Osiris - The Egyptian God of the Underworld

Other names : Asar, Unnefer

Osiris - The Egyptian God of the UnderworldOsiris is among the most important Egyptian gods, having a cult following that grew beyond Egypt's borders. Modern-day Egypt still celebrates festivals dedicated to him. Osiris is usually depicted as a mummy wearing the Atef crown with a crook and flail in his hands.

Osiris is said to be the Egyptian god that brought civilization and agriculture to Egypt. It was he who taught the people how to farm and harvest grain. As such, he was worshipped as a god of agriculture.

Osiris was famously murdered and chopped up by his brother Set in a popular myth. He was then made whole again by his wife Isis together with Anubis and Thoth. After that, Osiris became the Lord of the Underworld, and by extension God of the Dead.

Ra - The Sun God

Ra - The Sun GodOther names : Re

Another of the most important Egyptian gods, Ra represented the creative force of the sun. Many myths credit Ra to be the first of the gods, creating the world from a watery chaos.

As the sun god, Ra is commonly depicted as a hawk-headed man with the solar disc on his head. He is also commonly pictured riding a boat. Ra will sail his boat into the underworld in the evening. Every night, Ra has to overcome many challenges, the most difficult of which is the great serpent Apep. If he succeeds, he is able to sail out of the underworld into the land of the living in the morning.

Ra had a very influential cult, and many pharaohs worshipped him and even included his name in their own. Later on, he was combined with the creator god Amun to form Amun-Ra, the almighty creator and sun god.

Sekhmet - Goddess of War and Destruction

Other names : Sakhmet, Sekhet

Sekhmet was a powerful and destructive force, and was thus portrayed as a woman with the head of a lioness. She is also associated with red, the color of blood.

Sekhmet - Goddess of War and DestructionAccording to creation myths, during Ra's reign as pharaoh, the people started to become independent and disloyal. In retribution, Ra created Sekhmet to attack the people to teach them a lesson.

However, Sekhmet was too successful in her task. Everyday, the fields ran red with the blood of her victims. Feeling remorse for creating this force of destruction, Ra tried to stop Sekhmet, but she continued killing.

In the end, Ra stopped Sekhmet's rampage by disguising beer as blood and getting her drunk. Being intoxicated, Sekhmet was unable to perform her task, and the people were safe once more.

Want to know more about Egyptian gods? Try this book from Amazon:

Egyptian Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of Ancient EgyptEgyptian Mythology: A Guide to the Gods, Goddesses, and Traditions of Ancient Egypt

This book provides a timeline covering the seven stages in the mythical history of Egypt and outlining the major events of each stage. An A to Z section covers the principal themes and concepts of Egyptian mythology as well as the most important deities, demons, and other characters.

Set - God of Chaos

Set - God of ChaosOther names : Seth, Sutekh

The Egyptian god Set is most commonly portrayed as a man with a demonic head, resembling that of an aardvark.

Originally, Set was the patron god of the pharaohs of Lower (Northern) Egypt, just as Horus was the patron god of the pharaohs of Upper (Southern) Egypt. Certain Pharaohs even incorporated Set's name into their own names.

However, as the cult of Osiris grew larger and the story of Osiris' murder grew more popular, Set started to be portrayed as a more evil and chaotic god. He became associated with the barren deserts and thunderstorms.

After Set was defeated by Horus, he was banished from Egypt, and spent his time protecting Ra on his nightly voyage through the underworld.

Thoth - God of Wisdom

Thoth - God of WisdomOther names : Djehuty, Tehuti, Zehuti

Thoth, the ibis-headed god of wisdom, was also associated with the moon. He is another of the more important Egyptian gods, featuring in almost all the myths.

It was the wise Thoth who helped the goddess Nut conceive. He also helped Isis gather and heal her dead husband Osiris. However, Thoth is most famous for his role in the Final Judgment. As Anubis weighs the heart of the deceased against the feather of Ma'at, it is Thoth who records the outcome and reports to the other gods whether the deceased is to be accepted into the underworld.


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