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Egyptian Gods and Goddesses


Amun, King of the Gods

Other names : Amen, Ammon, Amon, Amoun
Titles : King of the Gods, God of the Wind, Patron God of Thebes

Amun, whose name means "Hidden", was originally worshipped locally in Thebes. When Thebes conquered neighboring states, Amun grew to become a national deity throughout Egypt.

Among the Egyptian gods and goddesses, Amun is considered the most important. He was a creator god, and generations of pharaohs adopted him as their patron deity. His name even appears in the names of pharaohs, such as Tutankhamun.

As Amun's importance grew, he was declared to be King of the Gods, and many temples were built in his name in places such as Karnak and Luxor.

At one point, he was also combined with the sun god Ra to form Amun-Ra, the almighty god of the sun and creation.



The Egyptian god Anubis

Other names : Anpu
Titles : God of the Dead, Lord of the Underworld, God of Cemeteries, Jackal God, Patron God of Embalmers

The Egyptian god Anubis is most often represented as a man with the head of a jackal. He presides over all things to do with death and dying. He is said to be the one who embalmed Osiris, the first mummy. His work is said to be the basis of the Egyptian mummification process.

As an early Egyptian god, Anubis was worshipped as the God of the Dead. However, as the number of Egyptian gods and goddesses grew, Osiris later took over this role. Since then, Anubis is considered the god of embalming and mummification.

The main role of Anubis is during the Final Judgment, when a person dies. He guides the deceased to the Scales of Ma'at. There, Anubis oversees the weighing of the person's heart against the feather of Ma'at.



The Egyptian goddess Bastet

Other names : Baast, Baset, Bast, Ubaste
Titles : Cat Goddess, Goddess of Protection, Goddess of Joy, Goddess of Perfumes, Goddess of Family

The Egyptian goddess Bastet, daughter of Ra, was among the more popular of the ancient Egyptian gods and goddesses. She had a huge cult following in the city of Bubastis in the Nile delta.

In ancient times, the goddess Bastet was depicted as a lioness. She was associated with related attributes, such as vengeance, ferocity and war.

Later on, Bastet bore the likeness of the domesticated cat, and took on more docile characteristics. She became the goddess of the home and represented more friendly attributes such as music and dancing.

As such a popular Egyptian goddess, Bastet and her symbol - the domesticated cat - were considered sacred. Cats were treated as holy creatures, and were even mummified when they died.



Bes, God of Protection

Other names : Bis, Bisu
Titles : God of Dwarves, Protector of Households, God of Pleasure

Bes was a unique god. Unlike the other Egyptian gods and goddesses, who were depicted in noble positions and likenesses, Bes was usually pictured to be a dwarf with a large head, stumpy legs and a generally ugly look.

Bes was also unique in the sense that he was not a local deity like the other Egyptian gods and goddesses, but was likely imported from central Africa.

Like the goddess Bastet, Bes was also the patron god of music and dancing, and was associated with other feminine aspects such as childbirth.

Bes also had a protective aspect, and statues of him could be seen in homes, guarding the family against evil spirits and animals.



Geb, God of Earth

Other names : Keb, Seb
Titles : God of the Earth, Fertile Earth and Barren Desert

Geb was the god of earth. His parents were Shu, god of the air, and Tefnut, goddess of the rain. His sister and wife was Nut, goddess of the sky.

As the god of earth, Geb represented the fertile Nile valley, and is often depicted as dark brown (the color of the flood plains), or green (the color of vegetation). It is said that his loud laughter is the cause of earthquakes. His sacred animal is the goose.

Geb was one of the most ancient of the Egyptian gods and goddesses. This can be seen in the more elemental and primal attributes that he, his parents and his wife all embodied. It was he who - with Nut - sired Osiris, Isis, Set and Nephthys, the later pantheon of gods.

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